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UNICA CARTE A PUBLICITATII DIN ROMANIA
Manual pentru clasa a-ii-a, E. Constantinescu, M. Zarescu, E. Sachelarie, Ed. Butoi, Gh. Manual pentru clasa a VI-a, Ed. Rad, p. Citatele discutate anterior 4. Humanitas, Buc. Nicolae, Ed. Cernat, Op. Manolescu, N. Manual pentru clasa a XII-a, Ed. Leahu, C. Manual pentru clasa a X-a, Ed. Slama-Cazacu, Op. Antologie de texte comentate clasa a VII-a, Ed. Pestalozzi, Buc. Columban, I. Pop, C. Modele de rezolvare a subiectelor pentru examenul de Bacalaureat , Ed. Art Grup Editorial, Buc.
Thus using images becomes the solution because, compared to verbal communication, our mind can analyze images much more easily, in fractions of a second. Because few of the newspaper readers actually go through the entire text of an advertisement, the design of an advertisement is of a different nature, preparing the reader for a visual reading experience. This implies a visual design for the copy, too, which should support the argumentation. This paper discusses patterns used in magazines optimal frame, chromatic code, mood, graphics, visual metaphors etc.
Finally, some considerations are made regarding images used in perfume advertisements ads that in most cases exploit communication via image, rather than via persuasive linguistic message , as well as the image of the type face font size, height, type. Keywords: advertising discourse, iconic rhetoric Word and image are like chair and table: if you want to sit at the table, you need both said Jean-Luc Godard, in Anisi parlait Jean-Luc, Fragments du discours d un amoreaux des mots, Telerama, nr.
What is seen more often and better is overrated, acting on our sensibility. This outcome develops a series of characteristics of the construction of the advertising text, preparing for the reader, as J. Adam and M. Bonhomme noticed a visual path of reading. This approach involves an organization or a visual construction of the statement, which emphasizes the argument.
Thus, what it is shown to us Linguistics becomes credible, according to the well-known dictum: I only believe what I see with my eyes. Brune, , ] to cry out: envision, envision, it still remains something. The major concern of the advertisement creators is to make their advertisement product to be quickly noticed and easily caught. The use of the image becomes, hereby, the solution.
In comparison with the orally manifestation, our mind can analyse the images much easier, in fractions of seconds. A second would be enough only for getting over one word, whereas from 1. Therefore, images have been called cannon balls training the brain [W. Kroeber-Riel, , ] and, like the words, they can argue, rise questions or create fictions. The global significance of a visual message is built through the interaction of different types of signs: plastic, iconic, linguistic.
In the written press Michael Schudson notices - bigger advertisements have a bigger effect on consumers than those of smaller dimensions; coloured advertisements are more easily caught than those in black and white: those with images or short texts have an advantage towards those without illustration and a very long message. Clifford G. Christians, Mark Fackler, Kim B.
Rotzol and Kathy B. McKee [, ] stick at some of the common dimensions of orally advertising expression. Chosen models - must be memorable: they are usually beautiful, muscular, graceful, lovely, just good for you to wish to be like them; Framework - it s splendid or less attractive, on how the argumentation for sale requests. The advertising image is a system made of two sub-system perceived simultaneously: the denotation level and the connotation level. Here it is Barthes explains a Panzani advertisement: packs of pasta, a box, a bag, tomatoes, onions, hot peppers, a mushroom, everything coming out of a half-opened bag, in shades of yellow and green on a red background.
The fresh vegetables and the traditional way of going to the market add the naturalness connotation, while the pagination of the consecutive elements of the advertisement adds the pictorial aesthetic connotation. Barthes considers these systems of connotation as the ideology of the society, associated with the rhetoric field of expression. In other words, beyond the literal or denoted message emphasised by description, there is a symbolic or connoted message linked to the pre-existent knowledge that is shared by the one who make the announcement and the reader In the visual message we will distinguish figurative or iconic signs that in a coded way, give the impression of resemblance with reality, juggling with the perceptive analogy and the representation codes inherited from the representative western tradition.
Regarding rhetoric, as inventio, Barthes admits the image s specificity of the connotation: rhetoric of the connotation meaning the ability of provoking a secondary meaning starting from a primary meaning, from a full sign. Jacques Durand [Jacques Durand, ] notices how the publicity uses the entire panoply of the rhetorical figures which were before considered appropriate only to the spoken language: collocation figures and paradigm figures. We can distinguish visual metaphors in the advertising speech, consisting in the replacement of the commercial subject cigarettes for example with a cowboy, in a sunset see the advertisement at Marlboro , two alpinists reaching the top of the mountain Camel , a man possessing a grain, in the middle of winter Hollywood or a eagle flying over New York s high buildings Winston.
Through implicit comparison, the cigarettes are attributed the qualities of the objects force, life pleasure, friendship, joy, self control, freedom, freshness, energy, etc. We can remark visual motives which represent the needs and wishes of the consumers, the images translating concepts such as freedom, adventure, sensuality, security, harmony, fulfilled family, youth, social status, luxury etc. The maximum exploitation of the image in the advertisement, to the detriment of the linguistic message, can be interpreted as means which gives force to the product. It is gambled on what is not told, on the implicit.
Instead of developing an argument through explicit affirmation, the image will develop it in secret, gambling on the knowledge of the public purchaser, creating, in this way, a feeling of complicity between initiates. The argumentative demarche in the construction of the advertisement is not reducible to the following text: I tell you that X is the best detergent or Y is the best drink and Z is the best perfume.
On the contrary, an argumentation is as more successful, as more indirect it seems, as more it leaves the impression of a free choice from the interlocutor.
In other words, paraphrasing Tadeusz Kotarbinski from Treaty about well done thing, we could say: What is well done in the advertisement is indirectly done. We encounter rhetoric of the obliquity, in which the Linguistics indirect approach is preferred in order to avoid the imposition in front of the other, aggressing his subjectivity. The publicity has to delete the boredom of daily purchases dressing in dream products which, without it, wouldn t be but what they are.
Here is the magic of our art. In every consumer there is a poet who sleeps. The publicity must wake him up. Our job is to make the smoke enter through one side of the tunnel and see a locomotive coming out on the other side. Seguela, , ] In the case of the well known commercial at Marlboro we could find a series of iconic significations, to which significations at a first level correspond, as well as connotations at a second level.
The commercial to Marlboro cigarettes is not one gambling on the power of persuasion of words. The Marlboro man himself is one of few words. He shows neither sophistication, nor wisdom, but he is rather strong, the quiet type with confidence in his own resources Like a Zen master, he speaks only when it is absolutely necessary Marlboro isn t a game for kids.
It s a tough cigarette, for strong men, confidents in themselves. The cowboy serves as an icon for a commercial concept, the Wild West, which represents the adventure, freedom, strength. So, the Marlboro cigarettes consumer and the advertisement don t have in common the form, the cowboy lifestyle, but the pretext of freedom, independence, adventure. The "smell" of the image The perfumes advertisements gamble in most cases on the communication through image and less on a linguistic, persuasive message. Being a luxury product, the motivation of its purchase must be more complex symbolized than any other product of stringent necessity and due to the need to materialise an invisible concept, the smell.
Thus, the brand image will give personality to the product, which being olfactory impossible to represent, will be present, together with the bottle, near the potential buyers. The public adherence is born trough a narrative procedure [Einstein would have replied to a mother who wished to guide her son towards the scientific career that the fairy tale must be a text approached. The affirmation does nothing more than to confirm the value of accelerator of the imagination which this form of narration assumes.
In all the cases, the message will have to be mostly metaphorically rather than argumentative, more suggestive than explanatory It is exactly the charm and quality of the story that will open someone s appetite to try the product in order to learn, to know it. In this Linguistics scheme a must have must be respected: the pretty story must be thought, built in such a case that it will entirely be attributed to the product, Claude Bonnange, Chantal Thomas, , 42] In this way we are invited to belong to a group and to adopt a particular life style.
In L image publicitaire des parfums, M. Julien [M. Julien, , ] stablishes some types of characters present in the advertising communication in the case of perfumes: the sensual, the elitist, the romantic and the eccentric. We could say that in the case of perfumes advertising, the creators fully exploit the erotic and sexuality classes, preferring images with women and men in sensual postures, straight glances, bared shoulders, half-opened lips. The colours from the images are warm, the creators preferring images with sexual connotations see the presented images, in which the characters appear with the eyes opened, suggesting the ecstasy.
The commercial creators who prefer the image of the bottle are doing anything else but to explain visually the perfume, the bottle being the first element that tries to transmit an olfactory concept. A sober bottle, without any other design adds, place the product beyond the time. The colour contrasts bottle- content , offer the wordless image, distinction and elegance. A repetitive image from the commercials for perfumes is also what sends to sensuality, to the couple passion.
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The attraction between the man and the woman, the body position, one of visible pleasure, the dressing details lingerie or nude are percussive images for the commercial creators and the purchaser public. Not even the visual hyperbole is overlooked by the commercial creators, who want to emphasize the product, by always valuing it positively. The rhetoric of the advertisement image is considered by Jacques Durand, one of pleasure research: The function of the rhetoric figures in the advertisement image is to stir the viewer s pleasure: on one hand to relieve, for a glance, of the physical effort demanded by the inhibition or a rejection and on the other hand, allowing him to dream of a world where everything is possible.
In the image, the rules are the ones of the physical reality the image which is rhetoricized by an immediate reading, is related to fantastic, the repetition- doubling, the hyperbolegigantism, ellipsis- levitation, etc. We could call the images stores of emotions. With a proper image, the experiences, the desires come to your mind, making a connection with the product from the commercial. The experts in marketing have discovered that the first impression of the reader is always an emotional one and only a positive impression will convince the reader to search for rational information.
The commercials don t have to convince the receptor that the product is useful but more to transmit an emotion, to impress him, showing him a new design or selling him a new lifestyle[see also: David Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising New York, Vintage Books, , p. Then give them Old Crow, but tell them it s Jack Daniels. Afterwards ask them what drink they prefer. They will think that the two drinks are different because they feed with images. Rarely, the information about the product shows up between the lines.
The detergents commercials rely heavily on the modern, happy families, having fun in a luxurious house, with a beautiful view. The fact that all the members of the family have so much free time available should persuade us that the X product, the dirt enemy, does the entire cleaning job and it does it quick. Then, the stereotype views, always green, the house yard, all make a reference to the ecological standards and to the economical efficiency of the promoted product. The commercial speech has its images organized on well established rules, so that the message reaches efficiently and convincing its target.
Georges Peninou [Peninou, ] speaks about privileged configurations that can be found in the commercial image, like: the focalizing construction, the axial construction, the inside construction, and the sequential construction. The focalizing construction consists in force lines colour, lighting, shapes which converge to a certain point of the commercial, the place of the commercialized product.
The sight is attracted by a strategic point of the commercial where the commercialized product lies. The axial construction distributes the product in the sight axe, in general right in the center of the commercial. The sequential construction makes that the view go through the commercial, reaching eventually the product, often situated for the reading from left to right, down, on the right.
Letters with signification Like the speaker, who long time ago, would use the gestures and the mimics for his speech, the commercials make use not only of words, but also of images, page settings, colour etc. These additional elements carry out significations that can strengthen or contradict the meaning given by the commercial words. In this way, connected with the image s rhetoric is also the words image or the way they are presented in the commercial.
The colour, and the words set up in the page, the height, and the thickness of the letters they often appear big and bold for the brand, and with thick capital letters for the notes; with thick and smaller capital letters for the addresses, etc , all these elements create a visual attraction that organizes the path of the look which leaving a certain point is then directed to come back at the same point.
The choice of the type of the letters has also a plastically importance. The words have an immediate understandable signification, this signification being completed, colored, and shaded right before being perceived by the plastically aspect of the letters orientation, shape, colour. Greg Myers compared the choice of the messages from the commercials with scrabble where if you make up words with the letters Q, Z, X, Y you receive 4,8 or 10 points, whereas for the words made up with E, A, S or T, the number of the points is smaller, reaching even one point.
In the commercials, the unusual letters draw the attention more quickly, that is why it is preferred name of products like: Biotex, Ajax, Radox, Dulux, Lux, Lucozade, Edulcolax, Jazz software , etc. Names that are difficult to pronounce in Romanian are not a good choice for the products.
Tnuva is just one of them. Perhaps the most appropriate example of commercial text in which only the type of the letters expresses the exactly message of the commercial is the following: It is. Are you? This is the commercial with the most troubling decoding if we think about the reaction that the ellipsis aroused in this case. The text was advertising for the The Independent daily newspaper, the letter s bodies for the word Greg Myers [Myers, 38; The teacher of applied linguistics, Guy Cook, cites the published results from the Campaign magazine from 21 December A graphologist analyses some important advertisements form the current journals.
The conclusion of the study is that the advertisements translate sentiments, the ones from Coca Cola, for example, transmit warmth, affection, and those from Ford enterprise, and speak about the respect of tradition. Of course, such an approach is very questionable because it implies much subjectivity. It may be true or not, admits Guy Cook, but the literary dimension of the advertisement remains an open issue. In this case, the commercial has been assimilated exclusively as a text, loosing it initial function for which it had been created.
Schudson, Michael, Advertising, the Uneasy Presuasion. Essay on advertisement communication, Bucuresti, Ed. Trei, Brune, F. Harmaton, Kroeber W. Stevenson s writings, the one containing childhood verses. Considered to be verses for children, addressed to children, therefore not very important, these little poems actually reveal a whole world of sensibility and love within which Stevenson places the most authentic part of his personality.
Apart from this, by directing his attention towards children, through these verses Stevenson displays a deep psychological and educational intuition. Keywords: childhood, poetry, memory, Stevenson 1. Who is Stevenson? In the world literature, Robert Louis Stevenson is the symbol of the adventurer-writer: travel novels, adventures novels and even a sciencefiction book are the writings characterizing Stevenson in the anyone s mind. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, seem to constitute the essence of the Scottish writer s work That is why the surprise is quite big when we find ourselves in front of his poems for children and this surprise could be double when we find out that the author of the playful verses did not have children of his own.
Therefore, who was? How many facets of his personality are expressed in a type of another of his literature, for not speaking about his fundamental restlessness, urging him to travel continuously and which brought him an early end on one of the Samoan islands. Amazing enough, one could find an almost satisfactorily answer in his volume, A Child s Garden of Verses. What is the Garden of Verses? At the first sight, this is a book containing sprightly poems for children. At the second sight, one can notice that it is a book written at the first person: all the verses express directly, what the child sees, what he feels, what he knows and tells.
One could think that Stevenson, even if he did not have his own children, proves a special intuition of a child s inner Fiction and arts life. Or, to accept a more logical affirmation, that the child from these verses is Stevenson himself. The question has its importance, because the final message of the volume depends on this answer. Perhaps many of the small poems were written for or about a certain child, known by Stevenson; there is no doubt that he liked the children, a testimony being his marriage, his wife having three children from a previous marriage.
But the volume, in its integrality, offers another answer also, that enlightens many of the adventurer writer s emotional experiences. The small joys of the childhood the psychologists understand how important they are for a child s normal development are noticed with acuity and with understanding and are expressed in simple verses, of a full of love humor: It is very nice to think The world is full of meat and drink A Thought Every night my prayers I say, And get my dinner every day; And every day that I ve been good, I get an orange after food.
The friendly cow all red and white, I love with all my heart: She gives me cream with all her might, To eat with apple-tart. The Cow Other lines express the observations that children make in the small world of their experiences: Whenever Auntie moves around, Her dresses make a curious sound; They trail behind her up the floor, And trundle after through the door.
Auntie s Skirts. Happy Thought Up into the cherry tree Who should climb but little me? I held the trunk with both my hands And looked abroad on foreign lands.
Foreign Lands Play is a constant presence, obviously, in the whole this sequence, as well as the relation of the young child with the other children, in the play.. We are in the role play phase and of the fight for the: We built a ship upon the stairs All made of the back-bedroom chairs, And filled it full of sofa pillows To go a-sailing on the billows.
A Good Play When I am grown to man s estate I shall be very proud and great, And tell the other girls and boys Not to meddle with my toys. Looking Forward It is interesting as affectionate and paternal he establishes the social rules that a child ought to observe: A child should always say what s true And speak when he is spoken to, And behave mannerly at table; At least as far as he is able. Whole Duty of Children Also, as the child grows, there are poems announcing the entrance into a fantastic world, personages marching in the front of the eyes, images of some other lands, the animism- as the shadow lives its independent life.
However, from time to time the impression that the child from the poems is the writer himself makes noticeable its presence. But only in the second collection of verses, The Child Alone, the impression gets stronger as the reader notices a slipping toward the fantasy of the inner world. It is significant the fact that the first poem of this second cycle is called The Unseen Playmate: When children are playing alone on the green, In comes the playmate that never was seen, When children are happy and lonely and good, The Friend of the Children comes out of the wood The unseen playmate The child s activities are sources for the stimulation of the imagination: The picture-book for the younger ones: All the pretty things put by, Wait upon the children s eye, Sheep and shepherds, trees and crooks In the picture story-books.
Picture-Books in the Winter and the story book within which the older children s fantasy plunge: These are the hills, these are the woods, These are my starry solitudes; And there the river by whose brink The roaring lions come to drink. The Land of Story-books The symbolic play and the construction play in which the things get a different shape and a different name: I call the little pool a sea; The little hills were big to me; For I am very small.
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I made a boat, I made a town, I searched the caverns up and down, And named them one and all. My Kingdom. The child grew-up a little; among the games-more seldom now, he looks at the world around, watches the flowers, the trees, insects and birds. Adults are only a few the gardener in the poem with the same name and Uncle Jim from Historical Associations and their role is one of guidance and of construction guiding the child in the World and in the construction of the World.
With this cycle, actually we came out from childhood. We should expect that the next sequence to be one of the adult, of the grown-up. But it does not happen that way- for Stevenson has leapt from childhood, directly to the world he had been imagining for such a long time. Envoys This is the title of the cycle of small poems of the childhood. It contains letters of the childhood memories. They are addressed to his two cousins, Willie and Henrieta, to Minnie, all of them former playmates; they are addressed to Auntie, chief of our aunts To Auntie , who is present also in the other cycles.
His mother receives a small poem of four lines in which his son offers his poetry together his entire childhood: You too, my mother, read my rhymes For love of unforgotten times, And you may chance to hear once more The little feet along the floor. To My Mother No doubt, these verses are farewells addressed to the shadows of his childhood.
But it is not only that, not even far, just a simple regret for a period of the innocence. It is a definitive farewell before a no return journey. The first one, To My Name-Child, is the will which the child Louis has left to all the children of which name is and who will discover surprisingly when finally will learn to read, that their name is already written. And even if the small Louis children from England will be to young to understand the words, still, many other children from all over the world, will know the little Louis from the book: Ay, and while you slept, a baby, over all the English lands Other little children took the volume in their hands; Other children questioned, in their homes across the seas: Who was little Louis, won t you tell us, Mother, please?
It is as the adult Louis, declining his body and name of grown-up, seems to spread himself embodying his child soul in every child as he offers his own childhood, the body of his childhood as an object of sacrament to every child of the world. The reward that he asks for is small: And that while you thought of no one, nearly Half the world away Some one thought of Louis on the beach of Monterey! The same perpetuation of his childhood, the same longing to be kept in the memory, not in the adults memory but in the children s one, is extended in the last poetry of the volume, To Any Reader: As from the house your mother sees You playing round the garden trees So you may see, if you will look Through the windows of this book, Another child, far, far away, And in another garden, play.
More than any of his writings, this book is what Stevenson wishes to leave after him, it is his will. Its beneficiaries are the children, all Louischildren and all the children with other names, from anywhere. They are the Let s not misunderstand this. Stevenson was not an infantile, an adult who does not want to grow-up and who tries to escape from the inexorable process of aging by living in an ideal construct of childhood.
No, he even specifies- the child from this book there is no more: He does not hear; he will not look, Nor yet be lured out of this book. For long ago, the truth to say, He has grown up and gone away, And it is but a child of air That lingers in the garden there. To Stevenson, the image of the childhood is not an eye back but one up.
A child of air, a metaphor of the spirit, a metaphor of the fantasy, but interesting, it is not a phantasm of escaping but always is the Creator s fantasy. The child s imagination in the stevensonian poetry is one of the construction of the world, in its objects but mainly, in its accompanying emotional experiences. The farewell from the final of the collection is addressed not only to the childhood, but to the earthly life in what it has more beautiful-the happy child. At that moment, Stevenson had less than ten years of life ahead and very likely, he cast intuitively a look at the landscape of his life.
Significantly, in these last years he wrote poetry mainly. Another essential element in Stevenson s writings that cannot be discussed extensively here, is the motive of the island; the island as such, appears in many texts, with a more or less important role. In the cycles of the poetry dedicated to the childhood, the island, the miraculous land, takes another content and another name than in other pieces of writing here it is the Garden.
A close place, isolated but at the same time open to all the beneficial experiences, the place of the child s safety, more specific, the place of the emotional security. The garden, as a last and blessed refuge, takes the place of the island. The island is the place of the adventure, the garden is the place of the pleasant rest. And the salute brought to the garden constitutes the opening of the next volume of poetry, the one of the adult world: Go, little book, and wish to all Flowers in the garden, meat in the hall, A bin of wine, a spice of wit, A house with lawns enclosing it, A living river by the door, A nightingale in the sycamore!
Envoy, from Underwoods 4. Closing It is amazing how the reader s perception about an author can be changed on the basis of a minor work, a writing that passes usually, unnoticed. The writer of the adventure and travel novels, a restlessness man who finds the garden of his life very far from his birth land the one, on an island, can be suddenly seen as the poet of the sensibility, naivety and imagination of the childhood. But let s not mislead ourselves. The world of the childhood as appears in Stevenson s verses is not the world of a child as such.
It is a metaphor of the aspiration and wish to realize at least in an imaginary world, the return in the Garden of Eden. Let s close therefore wit the same question from the beginning: who was Stevenson? But the answer, is it really so important? Finally, as he says, what is left is the child of air. References: Stevenson, R. The most complex character of the work, Dulcinea, appears as a great absence.
In a Renaissance spirit, the novel denounces through her one of the most significant breaches in knightly literature, i. Are nevoie don Quijote de acest mediator? Personajul romanului cavaleresc, spune de fapt don Quijote, nu e unul singur, cavalerul, ci e perechea. Ce e Doamna? Ce e iubirea? Ea face toate lucrurile egale, zice don Quijote. Iubirea de Dulcineea sau iubirea de iubire?
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Importante sunt armele, nu literele, nici femeile. Bibliografie: Auerbach, Erich, Mimesis. Generally, these studies describe the relationship between the female character and the environment she lives in, woman s social role in the patriarchal society, the winning of independence, woman as individuality in relation with two major family events: marriage and divorce, the right to education, political and judicial freedom. Then the female character is analyzed in relation with the public space and the private one.
In the 19 th century she is seen at the ball, the theatre, walking or on a trip, at church, playing cards or on the hippodrome, in the garden or in the imperious setting of a library. Keywords: female character, vernacular prose, Romanticism, melodramatics, morality, emancipation Romanticism manifested itself in its rather mild, domestic, even intimate aspects in the Romanian literature of the 19 th century.
Developing its Biedermeier phase, it displayed characters from the exterior, with their manifestations, gestures, reactions, exclamations, against the social background, all in the virtue of pure melodramatics. Women are spectacular figures, Romantic characters caught in the games of love, dominated by one state of mind only, or by antithetical ones.
Their psychology is often deficient, the writings in prose do not insist on the internal mechanism of the characters. Woman is seen from myriad perspectives in the Romanian 19 th century prose. There are no major differences between the Romanian women and those in Western Europe. All of them have relatively the same status, social differences being clearly preserved. Most times they dwell in suffering, lack of consideration, both at the level of their professional life, and their family and social life. This leveling of the European woman s Fiction and arts condition has been world-wide noticed: The 19 th century exiled women in their private environment, brutally, as it had never happened before.
Woman, having become the symbol of frailty which needed to be protected from the exterior world the public will gradually become the symbol of the private. Women had to be isolated in private spaces given exactly their biological weakness; the private itself, privacy, in itself, had revealed its frailty when facing politics and the public transformation of the revolutionary process. Man had the care of public life; woman, on the other hand, was the centre of her home and family.
It was firmly believed that man and woman were created to occupy different realms of activity. It was a law of nature, confirmed by habit and conveniences. Each sex, naturally different, had its own qualities and every attempt to escape from its sphere was doomed to failure.
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Aries, Duby, Many female characters were created especially to illustrate, slightly anticipatively, the immense power of women s desire for emancipation. There are some voices of the future, like the character Zoe from one of Bolintineanu s novel, who, directly, but temperately, in a controlled and rational manner, completely motivated, present the actual situation of the women at those times. Other voices, obedient, stay anchored in the habits of the past. Woman manifests herself in numerous spaces, where she can express her personality or she can stage her machinations.